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Video 1: A copper projectile impacts at 5 km/s a copper tank filled by water. The transmitted shock reaches about 1Mbar while expansion waves in the projectile produce over-expanded zone. The pressure drops dramatically in the projectile and reaches vacuum conditions. Spallation effects appear creating a copper shell with new interfaces. The method is thus able to deal with interfaces motion, create interfaces and transmit shocks through media with large impedances mismatch (air). The diffuse interface formulation of Saurel et al. (2009) is used in these computations.  


Video 2: Head-on collision of two liquid drops. The diffuse interface method of Perigaud and Saurel (2005) is used to compute liquid and gas motion in the presence of surface tension effects. Compressible effects are considered in each phase enabling shock waves computation. The same equations are solved everywhere without interface tracking, reconstruction or level-set. 


Video 3: A high-velocity steel pellet impacts at 800 m/s a steel plate. Solid materials are modelled as elastic-plastic media with the quasi-conservative formulation of Favrie et al. (2009). Under tension and shear effects, interfaces appear dynamically resulting in cracks propagation and failure of the material. All details are given in Serge Ndanou (2014) PhD thesis. 


Video 4: A liquid oxygen jet surrounded by hydrogen vapour at high speed enters a combustion chamber of cryotechnic engine. Shear effects induce jet fragmentation. Phase transition transforms the liquid oxygen to vapour that mixes with hydrogen. Details are given in Chiapolino et al. (2016).

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